Tag Archives: Propulsion

AIR TRAVEL – 04/10/17

first-flightGrowth in business and a countries GDP is often directly proportional to growth in air passenger traffic.

Domestic air passenger traffic in India grew by 21.6% in 2015-16 over 2014-15. So things must be going well!

This was probably the last thing the Wright Brothers envisaged when they made their first flight at Kitty Hawk in December 1903.

The basis of flight being an extension of the principle first framed by Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) – velocity/pressure.

The Brothers used carefully cambered surfaces to create better lift – cambered profiles providing better results than flat surfaces.

The cambering principles were first discussed scientifically by Sir George Cayley (1773–1857) a prolific British engineer.

The cambering principles were first set out in 1799 by Sir George,who later discovered the four key forces acting on a heavier than air flying vehicle – weight, lift, drag and thrust.

f100-rangeP.A.Hilton’s F100 range of nine modular experiments allows students to study the key principles effecting early flight such as Bernoulli’s principle, pressure, boundary layers, velocity, drag, flow visualization etc.

Sir-Frank-WhittleWhilst engines of differing types were fitted to flying machines almost from day one, it wasn’t until Sir Frank Whittle (1907-1996) patented the first jet engine in 1930 that our world suddenly shrank.

jet-engineThe high level principles of jet engine technology are easy enough to understand. Compress air and mix with fuel, ignite, allow hot gases to expand and release energy.

However, the reality of building these devices is far from simple.

f300-rangeThe P.A.Hilton F300 range allows students to study the principles of compressible fluids.

The F300 range of seven modular experiments covers key learning areas such as nozzle performance, pressure distribution, turbines, friction etc.

But the heart of the jet engine is its combustion chamber. Studying all aspects of combustion is key to the longevity and future development of these power units.

PA-c492-unitThe P.A.Hilton C492 units affords the students the opportunity to study combustion efficiency, heat transfer and energy balances.

The C492 is used by many University across the globe to teach the principles of combustion and in some cases being used to conduct research. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/5/5/2098

Studying engine performance is key to the development of future power units. Environmental concerns relating to noise and air pollution have helped shape current and future engine designs, as well as increases in better power to weight ratios etc.

A full understanding of how engines perform to a set of pre-prescribed conditions is essential if the student is to fully understand this topic.


P.A.Hilton’s P372 Jet Propulsion Test stand offers the student a complete performance analysis at various approach speeds. Calculation of exhaust velocities, measurement of temperatures, thrust, specific thrust, drag and fuel consumption.

This unit ships complete with both ramjet and pulse jet.


PA Hilton’s Combustion Unit

Fuelling Our Future – Part One

Certainly for the short term we are stuck with traditional hydrocarbon based fuels. Scientists apply ever more complex solutions to gaining just a few more metres from every drop of precious fuel.

The dynamics of development make these incremental performance gains limited. Traffic growth and all this brings to society as a whole makes the need for transition to safer, long-term fuels more relevant that in any other time in man’s development.

The P.A.Hilton C492 Combustion Laboratory Unit continues to remain high with universities and technical colleges look to achieve first class teaching on mass and energy balance, flame stability, shape and radiation as well as comparisons of different fuels or fuel additives.

The gas burner enables the study of the combustion of mains natural gas or LPG (gas bottle). With the oil burner studies involving kerosene, gas oil or other clean light fuels such as bio-diesel can be achieved.

A paper published by the Department of Chemistry, The Petroleum Institute, UAE into Real-Time Study of Noxious Gas Emissions and Combustion Efficiency of Blended Mixtures of Neem Biodiesel and Petro diesel shows how this unit can be utilized.

More information about this study can be found at http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/5/5/2098

Key features of the P.A.Hilton C492 Combustion Laboratory Unit

  • Familiarisation of the adjustment and operation of a commercial oil or gas burner.
  • Assessment of a burner, including:

    • Firing rate
    • Turndown range
    • Flame stability
    • Flame shape
    • Flame radiation
    • Smoke emission
  • Using either clean light boiler fuels, or natural gas or LPG
  • The effect of air/fuel ratio on:
    • Combustion efficiency as measured by flue gas constituents and temperature.
    • Heat transfer
    • Energy balance
  • Comparison of Flue Gas Analysis with theoretical predictions.
  • Comparison of Oil and Gas Burners.
    (With optional extra Burner)
  • Comparative performance of different fuels or fuel additives.

Fuelling Our Future – Part Two

Hydrogen-fuelled-carsWilliam-GoveHydrogen fuelled cars are big in California, due in part to their ‘hydrogen highway’. The state seized on the idea in 2003 and this dynamic idea was driven by the then newly elected Californian governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

The hydrogen fuel cell was the creation of William Gove who built the first working unit in 1842, using hydrogen gas to generate an electrical current.

The P.A Hilton Educational RE510 PEM Fuel Cell will provide an interesting experimental bench for instructing students on fuel cell science, technology and implementation.

Key features of the P.A.Hilton RE510 Educational PEM Fuel Cell


  • Measurement of the current density and voltage-current characteristics of a fuel cell.
  • Measurement of power density from a fuel cell capable of up to 750W (1 HP) electrical output.
  • Measurement and investigation of fuel cell efficiency with reference to fuel and air consumption, power output and heat losses.
  • Measurement and display of key temperatures and fluid throughputs fuel stoichiometric and cooling circuits.
  • Measurement and investigation of reactant utilization and transport phenomena.

For more information about these or other products please contact

Advancetech Controls Pvt Limited,
B-Wing 401, 4th Floor, Universal Business Park,
Off, Chandivali Farm Road, Andheri(East), Mumbai-400072, India.
Tel: +91 -22 -67291000
Email: info@advancetech.in
Website: www.advancetech.in
TOLL FREE: 1-800 1212 515