Corrosion in Oil & Gas Production

Corrosion in Oil and Gas Industry, Nuclear Environment And Its Mitigation

According to NACE, The total annual cost of corrosion in the Oil and Gas Production Industry is estimated to be $1.372 billion, broken down into $589 million in surface pipeline and facility costs, $463 million annually in downhole tubing expenses, and another $320 million in capital expenditures related to corrosion.

The deterioration of a metal or its properties-attacks every component at every stage in the life of every oil and gas field. From casing string to production platforms, from drilling through to abandonment, corrosion is an adversary worthy of all the high technology and research we can throw at it.

Nuclear power plants have suffered various failures through corrosion since the 1970s, costing the industry billions of euros. By design, supposedly highly corrosion resistant alloys have been used, such as Ni-based alloys, stainless steels and Zr alloys. However, the field is rich with examples of corrosion failures of these alloys.

oil and gas industry

 

This massive cost to the sector can be minimized through a combination of effective corrosion management programs and by working with such testing experts as Element to:

  • Statutory or Corporate compliance with Safety, Health and Environmental policies
  • Reduction in leaks
  • Increased plant availability
  • Reduction in unplanned maintenance
  • Reduction in deferment costs

University Labs And Research Institutes

Scientists focusing on the oil & gas and steel industries are often interested in the corrosive effects of H2S and CO2 on carbon steels. They are using HIC testing, constant-load instruments, four-point bending frames and SSRT instruments, as well as autoclaves and re-circulation loops for this purpose. Controlled-flow instruments including rotating electrodes, jet-impingement instruments and high-speed loops are used to study flow-assisted corrosion and inhibitor performance.

University labs and research institutes use a wide range of Cormet testing equipment to provide corrosion testing for their clients. These customers often undertake the most sophisticated and advanced testing, which means that customising the testing equipment plays a key role. University labs and research institutes serve clients from a wide variety of different industries.

Nuclear Power Plant

The average age of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) is constantly increasing while the number of new NPP constructions is still limited. In this circumstance, maintaining safety and performance of these ageing NPPs by effectively managing ageing degradations within an acceptable level becomes more and more important for Member States. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the significant ageing degradations for major components of both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) and is still an important technical issue.

Nuclear materials can experience many forms of corrosion. However, over the years, the nuclear industry has developed techniques to mitigate or minimize the consequences of all the various types of corrosion. During the last decade, the most relevant phenomena affecting the plant availability and the plant lifetime management include various forms of SCC (PWSCC, IASCCS and IGSCC) on the one hand and FAC on the other.

Conclusion

CORMET’s platform of India located, ADVANCETECH, testing laboratories have the right technical expertise, capabilities and accreditation to support the Oil & gas sector and Nuclear environments to help solve this immense corrosion challenge.

Our platform, backed by our CORMET team of internationally renowned, provides an extensive range of sour and sweet corrosion services and environmental simulations

These services include:

Nuclear Science Experiments

Nuclear Science Experiments with Digital Electronics For Teaching Laboratories

Nuclear Science Experiments

 

Nuclear Science Experiments

Tools for creating informative and highly productive Nuclear  laboratory experiences for your students. The Nuclear Science Experiments with Digital Electronics Laboratory Manual  offers turn-key solutions to set up your nuclear physics teaching facility with the newest and cutting-edge digital technology.  A set of 12 experiments, focusing on various aspects of gamma-ray detection and analysis, which provides an understanding of basic to more complex nuclear physics principles.

Nuclear Labkit

 

Click here to download the full manual “Nuclear Science Experiments with Digital Electronics”

 

AFM

Measuring Great AFM Images: 4 Criteria

AFM Technology

Atomic Force Microscopes are key nano-scale measurement instruments facilitating nanotechnology developments in all disciplines of science and engineering.

Measuring Great AFM Images: 4  Basic Criteria

DNA image by TT AFM
Challenging samples don’t necessarily require expensive AFMs. Here’s a 1 µm x 1 µm AFM image of DNA measured by a $30,000 TT-AFM.

Whether an atomic force microscope (AFM) cost $30,000 or $300,000, the validity and quality of its images depends on several important non-equipment factors. The simple truth about success with Atomic Force Microscopy is that it is generally less dependent on the equipment than it is on the operator and the environment.

Optimal operation of any AFM requires that the following four criteria be addressed:

1. Controlled Vibration Environment

It is essential to locate the AFM in a vibrationally quite environment and to use the appropriate vibration isolation cabinet or table for optimal AFM performance. Prior to imaging,users should measure the AFM’s noise floor to gauge whether the AFM is placed in an appropriate location. Small changes in the AFM’s location can make a big difference in results.

2. Proper Sample Preparation
The second criteria for measuring great AFM images is the proper preparation of samples. Sample preparation includes ensuring that the surface is relatively free of contaminates. Here’s a link to an article with tips and tricks for removing surface contamination  from samples. If deposited structures are being imaged, these must be properly adhered to the surface and applied to the surface in the correct concentration. For more on sample preparation techniques, you may want to watch highlights from AFMWorkshop’s popular AFM sample preparation seminar by Peter Eaton Ph.D. And Paul West Ph.D.

3. AFM knowledge and technique
Acquiring great atomic force microscope images requires operating the AFM correctly. Sadly, there are AFM images on websites and in publications that are actually images of artifacts, rather than images of samples. AFM users should master a few skills, including: making a careful probe approach to the sample; properly optimizing the feedback parameters used to control the motion of the probe as it is scanned; selecting the appropriate probe/cantilever for the application; and using the correct scanning mode.

4. Image processing skills
After being measured, all AFM images require some image processing. It’s essential to learn an image processing software package. For example, initially the background must be removed using one of several options, next a method for displaying the image must be selected, and finally data can be extracted from the image when required. AFMWorkshop uses Gwyddion software in its AFMs, an open-source image processing software available to anyone. A free webinar on image processing techniques is offered in the Learning Center section of this website.

2D_grey_scale_image
Images processed with Gwyddion: 2D grey scale image of AFM test pattern showing surface contamination
3D_color_scale_image
Images processed with Gwyddion: 3D color scale image of the same AFM test pattern with surface contamination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scientists, engineers and educators who make the investment in purchasing an AFM should plan on meeting the criteria above to ensure optimal performance from their AFM and satisfaction with their investment.

AFM Workshop offers regular AFM Training to help users with any make or model of AFM achieve success. Upcoming workshops include applications training in characterizing polymers and nanoparticles (both in April, 2015), bioapplications (imaging DNA, cells and F/D curves July 2015), and mastering advanced sample techniques (July, 2015). To view some of the images produced by AFMWorkshop’s atomic force microscopes, visit our AFM image gallery.
Atomic Bond Images

Bond-Order Discrimination by Atomic Force Microscopy
Bond-Order Discrimination by Atomic Force Microscopy

That’s not a disco beehive — that’s staring so hard that you can see the mortar holding reality together. Those green lines are the actual atomic bonds inside a molecule. This isn’t an artist’s impression: That’s an atomic force microscope (AFM) image of electron density. The green bars are the joints between atoms, the scaffold supporting everything. The red cells are the void between atoms in even the most solid material. We’re now so good at seeing molecules that we can make them look like the stick-and-ball models from chemistry class.

AFM
Left: model. Right: existence.
(An A is an angstrom, one ten-billionth of a meter.)

The earliest tool in scientific investigation was “poking things with a stick,” and AFM is the top level of that tech tree. The stick is now one molecule. When it presses against something, it bends a micromachined lever, reflecting a laser beam. It measures reality with a Rube Goldberg machine made out of the most awesome devices we’ve ever built. And then we made it even better.

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Commercial Off-the-Shelf

Multifunction I/O Boards

Multifunction I/O Boards : Distributed Sensor & Control I/O for Military Platforms

Typical Military platforms for Land, Sea or Air based deploys large numbers of sensors and heavily reliance on embedded electronics. With electronics sensing using MEMS miniatures fly by wire complex sensors and usage of electronic controlled actuators for controls IO towards replacing traditional mechanical driven system.

Electronics control system with higher performance and complex control system able to deliver today simple Automatic steering control to complete UAV/UGV control system.

Military platforms requires today’s demanding embedded system with lots of horse power processing for mission critical system.

Rise of Intelligence and Processing mission critical system

Military system designed and deployed around highly reliable COTS commercial off the shelf electronics architecture over a past two decade using open standard bus implementation. For harsh & rugged environment mission critical system, most widely bus architecture VME, VPX /open VPX, CPCI and PCI/PMC with SBC and IO sensor control sub systems.

Typical conventional Control system based on Processing engine using SBCs, Sensor interface IO and communication IO over VME, VPX /open VPX ,  CPCI, PCI/PMC  modular system. A submarine or large Navy Vessel requires few 10,000’s of IO system for various controls like electrical generation, propulsion, engine turbine and various other critical management control systems.

With increase in demand of processing and large numbers of sensors interfaces, rise of Intelligent IO with preprocessing, high density mix and match IO interfaces using COTS architecture.

Intelligent IO provide multifunction capability with mix and match for various functionality using FPGA design concept as well as processing power without SBCs.

Multifunction IO implementation using FPGA based design help wide range of functionality like A/D ,D/A, Digital I/O , Discrete I/O , PWM, Encoder , RTD /Temp sensors ,  Synchro /Resolver , Differential IO and Serial IOs.

Simultaneously add on communication function like MIL-STD1553, ARINC, CAN and Serial IO available  with protocol implementation using FPGA.

Besides executing the embedded application, also known in this case as the operational Flight Program (OFP), the sub system processing  has to manage and control all of the I/O interfaces with Built-in Test (BIT), a must in military embedded systems.

 

multifunction-io-boardmultifunction-io-board2multifunction-io-board

 

 

 

 

 

 

Using Multifunction Intelligence IO customers eliminate the need to design custom board and data acquisition systems for most sense-and-response applications.

COTS designs incorporate an innovative mix of processors and FPGAs that perform complex and time-critical tasks such as motion control, process control, monitoring, data transfer, and Background Built-in-Test (BIT).

Distributed IO concept using Sensor Interface Unit ( SIU )  :

SIU

Moving to Distributed I/O 

For example, simple conventional design, the system requires an input function that can measure the position of the steering wheel (A/D, S/D or Encoder), measure the position of the drive wheel around the vertical axis (an­other A/D, S/D or Encoder), and a D/A or PWM to actually drive an actuator to turn the wheel.

Here main processor computer requires to implement a control loop to perform this function. This computing sub system connected by a number of cables which run from the sensors and actuators back to the main processor sub system with  I/O functions.

Now imag­ine a remote self-contained Distributed IO Sensor Interface Unit SIU, which similar all of the I/O functions needed to perform this task, as well as an Processing & intelligence. This Distributed IO SIU can be placed close to the sensors and actuators to implement the control loop necessary to perform the actual function. In this scenario, the main processor computer doesn’t need to implement a control loop, but would simply read the steering wheel position and only have to send a short message/ command to the remote Distributed IO SIU over redundant Gig E LAN.

This Distributed IO ap­proach allows to place I/O points very near the actual sensors, pre-process the data, and then send the reduced data back to the mission proces­sing. 

Major Advantage of Distributed IO is reduction in cable length. Cable lennth reduction help in reduction of weight of long mutli sensors cables and also in reduced noise pickup, wire losses, ground loop potentials, and in many cases significantly reduced EMI.

Commercial Off-the-Shelf

 

Challenges for Large Mission critical system: 

With large Mission critical system, few challenges over a decade customers looking forward to overcome,

  • To reduce overall size of electronics and save cost & space
  • To Lower power consumption to reduce heat and increase system reliability
  • To Access and manage all I/O data  with remote access using Ethernet /other VME , CPCI ,PCI Bus
  • To verify & perform critical Heath check at start up BIT Built in test , continuous operational Background test.
  • Sensor and Actuator cable break vs Sensor failure Detect /Verification.

With this above challenges, NAI introduced early this decade Multifunction IO with on board preprocessing FPGA design COTS architecture for VME, cPCI, VPX/open VPX, PCI and PMC for military system.

These “Intelligent” Multifunction IO boards provide another very important feature that minimizes system size and power (SWaP); the abil­ity to perform multiple functions on one Board. In the past, many boards were avail­able with 32 or 64 A/Ds or D/As, or discrete, as well as different types of communication func­tions (MIL-STD-1553, serial, ARINC429, CAN , etc.) and processing (SBCs). Also NAI have created multifunction VME, cPCI and VPX boards. These boards allow the system integrator to select from a large number of available functions, and incorporate smaller channel counts of many functions on one Module.

This is made possible through the ability of the base board FPGAs and processing to be programmed at final assembly to perform almost any task. For example, a single board can incorporate A/D, D/A, RTD, MIL-STD-1553, ARINC429 and discrete, just to name a few (dozens of different functions are available). 

Through the use of NAI’s products, designers reduced card count by 50%— cutting the costs, system size, weight, and power consumption ( SWaP ) of the system.

In addition, the extensive test and diagnostic capabilities of the multifunction intelligence IO concept improved system maintainability by making it possible to trace and identify signal interference faults, such as open lines( cable break /short )  and undefined range faults ( over range Sensor , Short Sensor etc. )  Level for identification and action. Power on Built in test with continuous Background Test (operation) upto IO card, module and / or channel level identification, hardware & software alert and action items.

Request for Quotation: Multi-function I/O Boards

advman

Advanced Manufacturing Skills For Workplace Success!

Advanced Manufacturing offers some of the highest paying and most satisfying career opportunities available today, such as manufacturing operators, maintenance technicians, quality control specialists, scientists, process control engineers, pharmaceutical professionals, and many more. Amatrol’s Advanced Manufacturing program helps students develop the breadth and depth of technical skills they need to excel in technical support roles. Amatrol brings industrial realism to the classroom to teach job relevant skills needed today.

advman

Amatrol’s Advanced Manufacturing program showcases Integrated Systems Technology (IST), a unique way to combine hands-on skills with strong curriculum for an outstanding learner experience. The program offers multiple levels of study, starting with the basics and rapidly building into more sophisticated technology applications. With over 3,500 worldwide installations and growing, Amatrol continues to demonstrate a strong commitment to bridging the technical skill gaps in our workforce.

Job-Ready Skills

Amatrol’s IST-based curriculum is designed to support a wide array of learning styles. Theory and hands-on skills are interwoven in a modular framework through Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). LAPs are integrated study units that support just-in-time skills through presentation of theory immediately reinforced with hands-on application. Repetition, active problem solving and self-reviews all provide feedback to students to build confidence in the skills they develop.

Each topical area starts with basic concepts and then leads the student into a layered learning process of increasing depth. Skills and theory are strongly reinforced throughout Amatrol’s curriculum regardless of how the student accesses it – printed LAPs, interactive multimedia LAPs or web-delivered LAPs. Skills learned in one LAP are often used in other LAPs to reinforce student learning.

LAP-Stack-Adv-Mfg_250

Each Advanced Manufacturing topic incorporates the skill development needed for modern industry. From operation to complex troubleshooting, Amatrol’s learning systems deliver job-ready skills. Throughout all learning topics are problem-solving activities that create adaptive skills for new situations such as component selection, sizing, system layout and program design. Workplace skills, such as working in a team, communicating ideas, etc. are emphasized as well.

ADVANCETECH is an authorized distributor of AMATROL, For more information please visit http://www.amatrol.com/program/advanced-manufacturing/

Training Car

Autotronics – Automobile Engineering

The objective of Automobile Engineering (Autotronics) is to develop and understand the principles of conversion in design, construction and working of mechanical systems and electronic systems in automobiles.

The major development in recent years of electronics in the automobile sector has resulted in a wide dissemination of systems containing electronic components more and more sophisticated such as:

  • The electronic management of the petrol engine with reduced emissions.
  • The control of the diesel engine with high pressure injection.
  • The control systems of braking (ABS) for improved security.
  • The traction control and stability program (ESP) for greater drivability.
  • The electrical wiring based on multiplex board networks to increase the performance, reliability and comfort.
  • Diagnostic thorough and standardized for efficient maintenance service.

From this fact comes the need to create professionals with adequate training in the electronics sector – car in basic knowledge, and in the most advanced technological applications.

Training Car

The evolution of technology and the electronic components in the auto industry also requires a continuous updating theoretical, experimental and practical of the operators of the sector. In the formation all this entails the need to have systems in modular and flexible, capable of adapting to diversified needs and constantly changing.

ELETTRONICA VENETA SpA has developed environments and solutions for education and research are ideal for this purpose, making a series of equipment that allow you to analyze in a theoretical and experimental basis starting from the electrical systems of up to more complex systems.
The various topics of the topics following are organized to form a teaching program that includes both the theoretical introduction to the practical experiments.

  • Basic knowledge of the operation of the main mechanical and systems that make up the vehicle are designed with software simulations run in a Windows environment.
  • In-depth analysis of all electrical / electronic engine control and vehicle movement including the search for anomalies operation and subsequent development.
  • Use of the most modern multi-brand diagnostic systems applied in practice offi china on cars more technologically advanced.

ADVANCETECH is an authorized distributor of ELETTRONICA VENETA SpA  in India, for more information please visit : Training Car