PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer. PCI is the initialism for Peripheral Component Interconnect and is part of the PCI Local Bus standard. The PCI bus supports the functions found on a processor bus but in a standardized format that is independent of any particular processor’s native bus. Devices connected to the PCI bus appear to a bus master to be connected directly to its own bus and are assigned addresses in the processor’s address space.[page needed] It is a parallel bus, synchronous to a single bus clock.
CTM-5102 IRIG Time Code Reader/Generator PCI Module
CALCULEX produces a number of different PCI bus circuit boards that provide a variety of input and output capabilities. The CTM-5102 module is an IRIG time code reader/translator and synchronized generator.
The CTM-5102 has an internal 10MHz clock that is used to maintain a 100 nanosecond fine time counter. When presented with an external amplitude-modulated IRIG -A, -B or -G time code signal, the internal 10MHz clock is phase-locked to the external time code carrier. Upon loss of the external time code signal, the internal clock will flywheel until the external signal is reacquired.
The PCI bus interface on the CTM-5102 supports both initiator and target transfers. For initiator transfers, the module arbitrates for use of the PCI bus and when granted, performs single cycle or burst transfers as directed to the designated target addresses. For target transfers, the buffers on the CTM-5102 are mapped into the PCI bus address space and an external bus initiator performs either single cycle or burst accesses with the module.
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Composting is a natural process allowing: reuse of wastes, improvement of productive soils and preventions of environmental degradation.
Large-scale production requires process control to ensure that composting is rapid, uniform, that the product is pathogen free and meeting the standards. The main items to be controlled and monitored are:
Quantity of oxygen to get aerobic degradation while minimizing cooling,
Temperature to achieve sanitization
Feed rate of waste,
Mixing of the material,
Emissions of odors and hazardous aerosols.
Systems shall accommodate any feedstock or combinations of feedtocks, such as municipal solid wastes and food waste; consequently the control system must be programmable and expandable.
For a large plant in Germany, thirty-eight M1 controllers are used for temperature and O2 acquisition and control while SigmaPAC unit CU-02 together with six DM-32TS units, for a total of 192 I/Os, are used to acquire the measurements via MODBUS RTU and manage logic and sequencing functions.
A wind tunnel is an instrument used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects. A wind tunnel consists of a tubular passage with the object under test mounted in the middle. Air is made to move past the object by a powerful fan system or other means. The test object, often called a wind tunnel model is instrumented with suitable sensors to measure aerodynamic forces, pressure distribution, or other aerodynamic-related characteristics.
There are many different kinds of wind tunnels; an overview is given in the list below:
Low-speed wind tunnel
High-speed wind tunnel
Supersonic wind tunnel
Hypersonic wind tunnel
Subsonic and transonic wind tunnel
A compact, practical open-circuit suction wind tunnel shown in picture is used for studying aerodynamics. This wind tunnel saves time and money compared with full-scale wind tunnels or airborne laboratories, and it offers a wide variety of experiments. The wind tunnel gives accurate results and is suitable for undergraduate study and research projects.
A wide variety of subsonic aerodynamics experiments (some need ancillaries), including can be performed:
Flow past bluff and streamlined bodies with pressure and velocity observations in the wake
Investigations into boundary layer development
Influence of aspect ratio on aerofoil performance
Performance of an aerofoil with flap, influence of flap angle on lift, drag and stall
Pressure distribution around a cylinder under sub and super-critical flow conditions
Study of characteristics of models involving basic measurement of lift and drag forces
Study of the characteristics of three-dimensional aerofoils involving measurement of lift, drag and pitching moment
Study of the pressure distribution around an aerofoil model to derive the lift and comparison with direct measurements of lift
Drag force on a bluff body normal to an air flow
TecQuipment offers a comprehensive range of optional models and instrumentation, including a computer-based data acquisition system.
Centrifuge Systems are designed to apply a large centrifugal force to a payload. While this can also be accomplished with a Single-Axis motion simulation table system, a centrifuge is typically required for applications with larger payloads, and/or higher G requirements.
Ideal Aerosmith manufactures a variety of single-axis motion systems capable of applying a controlled centrifugal force to a test article. ADVANCETECH is an authorized distributor for Ideal Aerosmith’s products.
For many smaller payloads, an Ideal Aerosmith single-axis table system with an optional safety enclosure, such as the 1621-200A, 1571 or 2001P Series, can be used for G force testing. For larger payloads, Ideal Aerosmith manufactures the 1068-1, 1068-2, 1077, 1221 and 1231 Series Centrifuge Systems. The combination of these systems cover of wide range of G testing requirements ranging from microelectronic devices up to 200 lbs, and from 1 to 1000 G’s.
Ideal’s centrifuge line can be used for aerospace, automotive, geo-technical and military applications, such as qualification testing of accelerometers, inertial packages, or safe-arming devices (fuzes).
Their expertise in this area derives not only from decades of experience building precise single-axis table systems, but also from the year 2000 purchase of the Genisco Technology and Trio-Tech International rate table and centrifuge line. Ideal offers service, support and upgrades for legacy Genisco and Trio-Tech centrifuges.
Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy, with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
The AFM consists of a cantilever with a sharp tip (probe) at its end that is used to scan the specimen surface. The cantilever is typically silicon or silicon nitride with a tip radius of curvature on the order of nanometers. When the tip is brought into proximity of a sample surface, forces between the tip and the sample lead to a deflection of the cantilever according to Hooke’s law. AFM probes are manufactured with MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technology. Most AFM probes used are made from silicon (Si), but borosilicate glass and silicon nitride are also in use.
Atomic force microscopes are essential for nanotechnology research requiring the visualization and measurement of nanostructures. AFMWorkshop’s innovative microscopes offer a balance between an affordable price and the rigorous performance required by many nanotechnology researchers.
These instruments are robust and can be used in single-user as well as multi-user laboratories. AFMWorkshop’s microscopes share powerful and intuitive user interfaces that meet the needs of casual as well as advanced AFM operators.